2.1. The Problem: The Lack of Direction and Depth


  1. Deep learning suffers when we lack a clear individualised direction.
  2. Overcoming the "OK" Plateau (i.e., automaticity).
  3. The Circle of Development (COD)

Further Readings (Optional):

[WARNING: It's long, and not entirely necessary. Only if you want to totally geek out. But Todd Rose' book, the end of Average is really good].

  1. The End of Average by Todd Rose. As mentioned in the video, this book has profound implications on how we see society as a group, and how we see individuals.
  2. Supervisor Variance and it's replication study articles:
  3. Replication study of the Supervisor variance: a) Whipple, J., Hoyt, T., Rousmaniere, T., Swift, J., Pedersen, T., & Worthen, V. (2020). Supervisor Variance in Psychotherapy Outcome in Routine Practice: A Replication. SAGE Open, 10, 215824401989904. doi:10.1177/2158244019899047; b) Rousmaniere, T. G., Swift, J. K., Babins-Wagner, R., Whipple, J. L., & Berzins, S. (2014). Supervisor variance in psychotherapy outcome in routine practice. Psychotherapy Research, 1-10.doi:10.1080/10503307.2014.963730
  4. Goldberg, S. B., Rousmaniere, T., Miller, S. D., Whipple, J., Nielsen, S. L., Hoyt, W. T., & Wampold, B. E. (2016). Do psychotherapists improve with time and experience? A longitudinal analysis of outcomes in a clinical settingJ CounsPsychol, 63(1), 1-11. doi:10.1037/cou0000131 
  5. Chow, D. (2014). The study of supershrinks: Development and deliberate practices of highly effective psychotherapists.(PhD), Curtin University, Australia.
  6. Chow, D., Miller, S. D., Seidel, J. A., Kane, R. T., Thornton, J., & Andrews, W. P. (2015). The role of deliberate practice in the development of highly effective psychotherapists. Psychotherapy, 52(3), 337-345. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pst0000015
  7. Clement, P. P. A. (2013). Practice-Based Evidence: 45 Years of Psychotherapy’s Effectiveness in a Private Practice. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 67(1), 23-46.
  8. Clement, P. W. (2008). Outcomes from 40 years of psychotherapy in a private practice. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 62(3), 215-239.
  9. Clement, P. W. (1994). Quantitative evaluation of 26 years of private practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25(2), 173-176. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.25.2.173
  10. For more on the Circle of Development, see this post.